A Japanese term (無駄) meaning "futility; uselessness; wastefulness." Muda is a key removal-of-waste concept (along with Mura and Muri) in lean manufacturing that focuses on the removal of non-value adding steps.
The following table illustrates the traditional forms of muda in manufacturing with their equivalence in product development:
|Manufacturing Muda||Product Devleopment Muda|
|Inventory||Work in process (WIP)|
|Over production||Extra features|